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Information for parents and whānau

Young people, our rangatahi and tamariki, can access virtually any content on their devices – and they’re watching more than ever. They play games, watch films and series on streaming services, and videos on platforms like YouTube and social media. It can be fun and educational, but there are downsides.

This section has simple tools and advice for parents and whānau to help their rangatahi and tamariki deal with challenging content and stay safe.

Here’s what we know:

  • Messages and images in films, videos and games can help shape the way young people see the world. It can be hard for young tamariki to know what’s real and what’s not.

  • What rangatahi and tamariki see on their screens can sometimes be harmful. Some things can be frightening or trigger anxiety and distress.

  • Putting parental controls in place is a really good start – but children still need you to help them and they might see challenging things on friends’ devices.

There are simple things you can do:

You can’t control everything your rangatahi and tamariki see, but you can give them support and tools to deal with challenging media. 

  • Pay attention to what your rangatahi and tamariki are watching, reading and playing and set boundaries together.

  • Be aware of age ratings and classifications – these give important information about how scary, violent or sexual content is.

  • Watch things your rangatahi and tamariki enjoy together and start conversations with them about what you see.

  • Let them know they can talk to you, and keep conversations calm and open.

We have resources to walk you through it:

These are the questions parents ask us most often:

If you need more information please feel free to contact our Information Unit.

How do I start a conversation about the media with my child?

It can be difficult and awkward to talk to your young people about media and teach them how to engage critically with the media they are consuming. With the help of Dr Claire Henry from the School of English and Media Studies at Massey University and Dr Sue Bagshaw from the Collaborative Trust, we have put together a number of videos to help you start those conversations.

For more information, hop on over to our Parents' Guide.

Talking to young people: A video series

Thinking critically

Teaching young people to think critically can seem like a daunting task, but it's important to get those conversations started. Here's why:

Getting started is easy

It may seem difficult to start that conversation with young people, but it doesn't have to be. Dr Sue Bagshaw gives us some tips on where to start:

Concrete vs Abstract thinkers

Young people are going to be at different stages of development. Dr Sue Bagshaw gives us a quick overview on the differences between concrete and abstract thinkers:

A handy guide to brain development

How do our brains affect the way we develop? Dr Sue Bagshaw gives us the lowdown:

Flipping your lid

Why do young people sometimes feel like they're going through so many emotions? It may have something to do with their brain development:


Some of the conversations we want to have are pretty heavy. How do we start those? Dr Sue Bagshaw gives us an opening:

Checking your emotions

Don't forget to keep your emotions in check. It can lead to some pretty crossed wires:

I'm a parent and I'm concerned about what my children can access. What can I do?

It’s hard for parents to keep up with what their kids are watching on their phones and other devices, but there are plenty of tools available to help them out. We've put together a broad overview of parental control options that popular services offer over on our blog: Taking control.

What do film and game labels and symbols mean?

Films, DVDs and (restricted) games must be labelled with NZ film labels before they can be supplied in New Zealand. The colour and symbol on the label and any content warning on it will help you decide if a film or game is suitable for your family.

Film labels are colour coded, much the same as traffic lights:

means anyone can view a film.
means that anyone can view the film, but the film may contain material, such as violence or sexual themes, which may offend or upset some people. Parental guidance is advised for children viewing the film.
means that the film or game is legally restricted and can only be viewed or played by people over the age on the label. There are no exceptions to this restriction.

All labels have a rating or classification symbol and usually a descriptive note briefly explaining the nature of content in the film/game that may be of concern to viewers, for example, whether the film contains violence or sex.

You will find the labels or symbols displayed:

  • In cinemas
  • On video and DVD cases and on restricted-level games
  • As part of film trailers and on advertising material such as posters and websites (where a rating or classification has been assigned)
  • In newspapers
  • On some websites (of online distributors of films and games)

Unrestricted labels

These are usually applied by the Film and Video Labelling Body. Anyone of any age can be supplied an unrestricted film, although some unrestricted films are made to appeal to older or adult audiences. There are 3 levels of unrestricted ratings:

G label


Anyone can be shown or sold this. However, always consider whether the film is made for a family audience.

PG label


Anyone can be shown or sold this, but younger children may need some parental support when watching the film. Read the label for any content warnings and consider whether the film is made for a family audience.

M label


Anyone can be shown or sold this but it is more suitable for mature viewers. Read the label for any content warnings and consider whether the film is made for a family audience.
The meaning of the M label

Restricted labels

If you see a red label on a film or a game, it shows there is a legal restriction in place which limits who can be supplied with a game or a film. Red labels will often have a content warning which will list things in the film/game which some people may find disturbing.

Any restricted film or game will have been classified by the Office of Film and Literature Classification. The Office can classify according to age or purpose, or restrict a film's availability to a particular audience. The following restrictions are common:

R13, R15, R16, R18 labels

R13, R15, R16, R18

If something has one of these labels it can only be supplied to people of and over the age shown on the label. A parent, shop or cinema is breaking the law if they supply an age-restricted item to someone who is not legally allowed to access it. You will see these labels on films, games, DVDs and a few music recordings, magazines and books.
What does R13 mean?

RP13 / RP16 labels

RP13, RP16

The RP(age) label means that the film or DVD can only be watched by someone under the age on the label if they are with a parent or guardian (an adult over 18). You will see these labels on films and DVDs. A parent, shop or cinema is breaking the law if they allow unaccompanied children to access these films.
What does RP mean?

R label


R means that there is a special restriction. Refer to the words on the right of the label for the full conditions.

Can my children watch or play an age-restricted (red labelled) film or game?

Think of the red label as a warning flag. It means there is a legal restriction in place. If your child is under the age shown on the label (for example R13, R16) the law says they cannot be supplied that item. If the label is RP(age), then you can expect that there will be material in a film that your child may need support with, and the label means you should be watching the film with them.

Red means Restricted

Restrictions are placed on a film or game because there are levels of sex, horror, crime, cruelty, violence, self-harm or offensive language that children should not be exposed to. You can read the description on the label to find out more about the likely content of the film.

The restrictions on films and games apply in the home as well as school, sports clubs, shops and cinemas. A parent cannot give a child permission to watch or be shown a restricted film, or to buy or play a game, or watch a game being played, if the child is younger than the age on the label.

Many retail outlets and cinemas now ask for ID before young people can watch or buy age-restricted films and games. Many places will not accept a parent vouching for their child's age - they still require ID. Retailers should not sell an adult a restricted item, if they believe that adult will then give it to someone under the age shown on the label.

Red Means Restricted

Watch our cinema ad:

Are there any exceptions for age-restrictions? Can I take a baby to a restricted film?

No, a baby cannot be taken into an age-restricted film. The restriction applies no matter how young (or asleep) the baby is.


What trailers can be shown at children's movies?

Cinemas have an agreement with the Film and Video Labelling Body (the organisation responsible for issuing unrestricted ratings) and the Motion Picture Distributors' Association to follow good practice guidelines for the screening of trailers with unrestricted feature films.

The guidelines say that cinema operators should try to make sure that each trailer matches the likely audience for the feature film. Cinema operators should consider the age of the likely audience, the impact on that audience, and the time of the screening. The guidelines also specifically state that trailers for restricted films should not be shown before a G or PG rated film.

If you have questions about a trailer screened before a children's film, please contact our Information Unit.

I am unhappy with the rating (G, PG or M) on a film. What can I do?

Members of the public can seek the leave of the Chief Censor to submit a film which has been rated by the Film and Video Labelling Body (most G, PG and M films) to the Classification Office.

What films can be shown to children at school (or at other community groups)?

Schools and other groups are not exempted from the classification system. It is an offence to show a restricted film to anyone underage - with or without parents' permission. It is possible for someone to apply for an exemption from the classification, so they can screen a restricted film to a younger audience, but this must be done in advance of the screening.

If you are concerned about an unrestricted film your child has seen at school or at another venue, you should talk to the organisation that screened it. If you believe an underage person has been shown a restricted film please contact the Censorship Compliance Unit at the Department of Internal Affairs.

Where can I find out detailed information about the content of films?

The Internet Movie Database has plot summaries and detailed content information on films and videos. Common Sense Media also provides reviews for films, television shows and video games.

If you can't find information on a film contact our Information Unit.

Who regulates music, books and magazines/comics?

The Classification Office can classify books, graphic novels, magazines and music. If you see a red restricted label that looks the same as a film label on an item, it means it has been legally restricted to people above the age on the label.

Some distributors put their own R18 labels on items or warning labels on items. In some cases (such as adult magazines) the item would be restricted if it was seen by the Classification Office. In other cases (such as 'explicit lyrics' warnings on music) the distributor is just giving a general warning about content.

If you see a publication which you think should be restricted, or want to find out whether something has been seen by the Classification Office contact our Information Unit.

Stack of magazines

Who can I contact about TV or radio or advertising complaints?

The Office of Film and Literature Classification does not regulate broadcasting. The first place to contact is the TV or radio station that showed or played the item concerned. If you are not happy with their answer, contact the Broadcasting Standards Authority. For information or complaints about advertising you should contact the Advertising Standards Authority.



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